SPI by Social Insurance, Social Assistance, and Labor Market Programs
SPI by Depth and Breadth
SPI by Poor and Non-Poor
SPI by Male and Female
The SPI is a unitary ratio and is based first on dividing total expenditures on social protection by the total potential beneficiaries of social protection. Then this ratio is compared with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita.
In 2016, a number of changes in methodology were introduced starting with the 2011-2013 data. The first is the change in the denominator from one-quarter of GDP per capita to simply the GDP per capita. The term "index" was also changed to "indicator" but still retaining the SPI abbreviation. Disaster relief has been dropped from the computation. Lastly, more consistent estimates of the unemployed and underemployed were used by comparing the estimates provided by the national consultants to the estimates of the "working poor" provided independently by International Labour Organization.
The Social Protection Indicator: Assessing Results for Asia
The overall average SPI is equivalent to 3.7% of GDP per capita and social insurance alone accounts for 2.7% of GDP per capita. As a proportion, this represents about 73% of the overall SPI. Social assistance is the second largest program, with an SPI that is 0.9% of GDP per capita. This represents about 24% of the overall SPI, or about one third of that of social insurance. Labor market programs are the smallest social protection program, with an SPI that is only 0.1% of GDP per capita. As a proportion of the overall SPI, labor market programs account for about 3%.
The Social Protection Indicator: Assessing Results for the Pacific
The average SPI for the 13 Pacific island countries was 1.9% of GDP per capita-about half of the 3.7% figure for Asia. As illustrated, the 1.9% average SPI for the region equals the sum of the average SPIs for the three main components: 1.2% of GDP per capita for social insurance, 0.6% of GDP per capita for social assistance, and 0.1% of GDP per capita for labor market programs.